Enter this chilly white space and get a feel what it is like to visit the polar oceans by touching the real ice walls. Visit our VIP residents - that’s very important penguins - living in the Kingdom of Ice.
Life thrives in the polar seas, especially when summer comes to each pole in turn. When the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is plunged into winter darkness, the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica experiences continual summer light. Discover more about global warming, ocean acidification and food chains associated with the animals that live in these colder climes, including Gentoo penguins.
With opportunities to view the penguins from different areas, you can enjoy watching them both above and below the water as they gracefully swim and play. The exhibit has been created with the penguins' comfort in mind and boasts climate control and natural lighting cycles to provide essential behavioural cues for breeding and moulting. Gentoo penguins live in colder climates in the wild, so their home at The Deep is kept at a chilly 10 degrees C.
Like all birds, penguins moult once a year, but are different from other birds as they lose all their feathers very quickly, rather than just a few at a time. It can often look like a pillow has exploded because their feathers come out so fast, but they need to do this to remain waterproof. Bald patches and missing feathers would let in water meaning they would get cold. Before Gentoos start their moult, they eat more food and put on weight. They then stay on dry land and live off their fat reserves whilst they wait for their old feathers to drop out and new ones push through.
It is important that the penguin enclosure is kept clean, as with any of our other exhibits. Penguins produce a lot of waste, which is bright yellow! This has to be cleaned off their rocks every day and so you may well see members of staff in there scrubbing and hosing down the exhibit.
Penguins love to play and believe it or not enjoy nothing more than chasing bubbles and reflected light as well as playing with toys and standing under water sprinklers. Like with all other animals at The Deep, providing enrichment for the penguins is part of The Deep's everyday work and helps keep the animals healthy. By tuning into their natural behaviours, the keepers can make sure their physical and mental needs are being met. You will be able to watch some of these enrichment activities throughout the day when you visit.
Our penguins arrived in two groups; the first from Moody Gardens, Texas in 2014, followed by a further group from Calgary Zoo, Canada in 2015. They now form part of the European Breeding Programme for Gentoo penguins, adding to the genetic diversity of this species in Europe.
In summer 2019, we welcomed the arrival of two penguin chicks! The first chick arrived on 14 June and the second on 11 July, both weighing 90 grams.
In the first few months, our team of Aquarists had to keep a close eye on both chicks, making sure the parents were doing their jobs properly. Luckily, both sets of parents were caring for them well and they have grown and developed well.
Later in 2019, it was determined that both chicks were boys following the moult of their soft, downy feathers. The keepers were able to use their DNA to establish the sex. Following a vote on social media. the names Wilberforce (Wilbur) and Humber were chosen.
They're not the first penguin chicks we've had at The Deep. Our first chicks arrived in June 2016 and were named Attenborough and Lizzie after David Attenborough and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II who both celebrated their 90th Birthdays that year.
All of our penguins have successfully paired since their arrival in 2014 with breeding and nesting behaviour observed each subsequent year – a clear indication that they are happy in their home.
Read more about Juvenile penguins
Did you know that Gentoo penguins can lay up to two eggs each year? They choose their partner by bowing their heads to each other, and once they are happy with their choice of mate, the male will start to collect stones to create a comfortable nest for his partner. But... penguins can be sneaky! You may often see them stealing stones they like from other penguins' nests.
The eggs are laid about five days apart and are exactly the same size. To make sure which one is which, our keepers mark the egg. They are then incubated for around 35 days. Both parents take turns sitting on the eggs in the nest and it is never left alone.
When the chick is ready to hatch, it must break through an internal membrane into an air space. The chick uses an 'egg tooth' on its beak to break through the shell. This is called pipping. Hatching is hard work and it can take up to a day for the chick to completely emerge from the egg. Our keepers closely monitor the chick's progress every few hours.
Chicks will be roughly 90gms in weight when they emerge from the egg. Their growth is rapid and they can grow up to 850gms at just two weeks - an increase of nearly 1000%.
Gentoo adults can be fed on the nest so the pair can keep their energy up whilst feeding the chick. Being this close up gives us the opportunity to check up on the chick and begin some training to hand feed them. After three months, the chick reaches adult size and their soft baby feathers moult. The adults then leave their chicks to go in search of food.
Your questions answered
In this section you will find the answers to some of our most commonly asked questions. The health and happiness of our penguins is our number one priority, so here are some of the ways in which we care for them.
Read more about Your questions answered
1. How much space do the penguins need?
Our exhibit was meticulously designed to ensure that we provide exactly what our Gentoos need. It took 2 years of careful planning and design to ensure that the penguins are comfortable and happy here at The Deep, which is our number one concern.
It was built using the American and European penguin husbandry manuals which provide information on suitable land area, surface area of water and volume of water that you need for different species and for different numbers of birds. We also took advice from a number of penguin experts both in the UK and abroad.
This meant building a climate controlled enclosure with a specialist recirculating filtration system for the air and water. The theming of the enclosure has also been designed to give an interesting and enriching environment for the penguins and includes a number of different stimuli for them.
2. What do penguins do for fun?
Penguins are very easy to keep happy as they are naturally inquisitive animals. We are careful when providing enrichment that what we offer is based on the specific requirements of penguins and not on a human perception of what penguins like to do! The exhibit itself provides a variety of areas for the penguins to explore including access to ice which builds up in the exhibit throughout the day (which they play with, move, stand on and chase). Different sized and shaped stones in the beach areas encourage natural behaviour in stone selection for nesting material and social interactions.
Penguins also favour a variety of textures to walk and stand on. As well as the different terrain you see there are also a range of different textured mats out of view for them to stand or lie down on. If you can't see all the penguins they may well be up there by the window taking a break out of view. The window itself provides views of birds flying past and projected moving cloud images on the walls also act as a visual stimulus. As night falls in the exhibit we have the option to project the southern lights onto the wall which adds slow moving colour.
There is also a lot of social enrichment between the animals through natural behaviours (play, courtship, nest building, etc.). In addition, keeper interaction during feeding and cleaning times engages the animals. Cleaning duties involve brushes and hoses which themselves engage the birds. Feeding is offered by hand or via foraging for food in the water or on land.
In addition a wide variety of children's toys can be used to introduce changes into the exhibit. Floating objects, balls, bubble machines and coloured objects all provide interest for the birds. The key to good enrichment is to provide different things as randomly as possible, at unpredictable times and for different lengths of time.
3. Why is the display indoors?
Gentoo penguins are a Sub Antarctic species of bird and as such enjoy colder temperatures. Our climate here in Hull would be too warm for them in the summer months and so our exhibit has been designed and built with an air conditioning system which also filters the air keeping it as clean and fresh as possible. Having an indoor exhibit means we can also chill the water to ensure a natural water temperature.
4. Why are we unable to go inside the penguin exhibit?
Our exhibit was meticulously designed to ensure that we meet the penguins' needs and to ensure they are comfortable and happy. Having our visitors go through the exhibit would compromise the climate control and air filtration of the exhibit which would not be in the best interests of the birds.
The three different viewing areas give three very different perspectives of the enclosure and allow for the chance to get literally centimetres away from the penguins. They can be seen from above, underwater and on land. Whilst walking through the Kingdom of Ice as you approach the penguin display you are able to get a feel for the penguins' cold environment and touch our real ice walls.
5. Why does it go dark in the exhibit during the winter?
The penguins enclosure has a purpose built lighting system which replicates the day length throughout the year in South Georgia. It follows a Northern hemisphere regime rather than a Southern hemisphere regime so in the winter the exhibit will have shorter days like we do in the UK.
Penguins rely on day length as a trigger for their annual moult (when they lose and replace feathers). This lighting system means that they get all the right cues to do this properly.
The penguins can still be seen after sunset in the winter months as the exhibit has a moon light. The penguins will likely be less active as they rest during the darker hours.
6. When are the penguins most active?
The penguins tend to be most active in the morning and early afternoon and can be seen swimming, jumping and waddling around. Later in the afternoon, their pace slows down in preparation for 'sunset', and they are often seen preening their feathers and resting later in the day.
7. When is it easiest to see the penguins?
The Deep tends to be at its busiest between 11am and 1.30pm, so if you would prefer it to be quieter, then we suggest visiting outside of these times. We appreciate the viewing windows can get busy and we don't want to rush our visitors, but please be considerate and let everyone have a chance to see them when you have had a good look.
8. Why do the penguins occasionally look scruffy?
Once a year penguins (like all other birds) 'moult'. This is a natural process where they lose and regrow their feathers. It can take a few weeks for the process to complete but during this time they can appear scruffy and inactive.
In the two weeks before the penguins moult, their appetite increases and they eat more food in preparation. Gentoos have two types of feathers; a soft downy woollen layer to keep them warm and a waterproof layer on top to keep them dry, and during the moult these are lost. Penguins will therefore spend much more time on land and are generally less active.